Neha's Writings

The Technology Underlying Stablecoins

23 Sep 2021

The term “stablecoin” typically refers to tokens issued on a blockchain which are designed to maintain a stable value with respect to an existing currency, for example the dollar. The largest stablecoins currently are Tether and USDC, with total token values of $69B and $30B, respectively.1

There is generally a reasonable understanding of the financial risks involved in stablecoins, particularly around whether the stablecoin is fully backed, and the liquidity of those assets backing it. What I have not heard discussed are the technical risks associated with stablecoins, which is what this post covers. I specifically focus on stablecoins issued by centralized entities who custody backing assets, not algorithmic stablecoins (such as Dai, issued by MakerDAO), though some of these issues apply to those stablecoins as well.

Even centralized stablecoins operate as software running on decentralized blockchains, and it’s important to keep in mind that stablecoins involve layers of software that are not used in traditional financial institution activity. If this software doesn’t operate safely and securely, or if the decentralized networks don’t operate as expected, there could be a loss of confidence in the stablecoin or even outright theft. As it stands now, regulators, issuers, and users of a stablecoin need to understand stablecoin software and the underlying blockchain platforms they run on in order to accurately measure technical and operational risk.

Three important parts of the system to consider are the underlying blockchain, the stablecoin smart contract, and the stablecoin provider’s minting and redemption process.

The underlying blockchain

Stablecoins run as smart contracts on blockchains. In many cases what we call one stablecoin (for example, Tether or USDC) runs on multiple different blockchains, as entirely separate tokens sharing a single backing. Users can choose which token on which blockchain to obtain, but some might be easier to obtain or use than others, as the tokens are accepted in smart contracts or as payment individually. Each blockchain is used as an accounting of who currently controls a stablecoin token. For example, USDC runs on five different chains: Ethereum (27.5B USDC), Algorand (345M USDC), Solana (2.9B USDC), Stellar (161M USDC), and Tron (206M USDC), with the intention of adding ten more.2 There is no “universal” USDC token—each USDC token is specific to one of these chains. This is often a point of confusion; for example CoinMarketcap mistakenly says that “All of the USDCs in circulation are actually ERC-20 tokens, which can be found on the Ethereum blockchain.”3 This could be because Coinbase, one of the largest US cryptocurrency exchanges, currently only sells USDC issued on the Ethereum blockchain. However, Centre’s own website says that “USD Coin is an ERC-20 stablecoin,” which is not true of USDC issued on other chains.4

The choice of blockchain is not a mere implementation detail. These chains have vastly different architectures, languages, dependencies, cryptography, miners or validator sets, and fees. As described below, the operation of the blockchain can affect a user’s ability to use the stablecoin effectively. It is unclear whether enough information is always conveyed to the user to distinguish between the individual features and risks these different blockchain technologies introduce as the user engages with different stablecoin tokens built on top of the blockchain networks.

Security guarantees. Each blockchain makes different assumptions about the miners and/or validators. For example, Tron relies on 27 rotating validators who “are entrusted to become the next block validators and maintain the blockchain history.”5 Unfortunately, in some cases the chain’s correctness (there is always one chain and everyone sees it) and liveness (one can get a transaction processed in a reasonable amount of time) guarantees will no longer hold if even a minority (one third) of validators collude.

This, and other factors, can affect the ability to even get a stablecoin transaction onto the chain. Miners or validators might collude to actively censor or prevent certain transactions, for example, one that is issued to upgrade the software of the smart contract to fix bugs. Or, miners or validators could prevent specific issuance, transfer, or withdrawal transactions. This doesn’t necessarily affect the stablecoin reserves, or backing, but could cause disruption and confusion about token ownership and prevent the stablecoin from operating effectively.

Bugs. All software has bugs. As a recent example, the blockchain Solana was down for 17 hours due to exploit of a resource exhaustion bug,6 meaning that for that period of time no one could settle any transactions on Solana, including Solana-issued stablecoin transactions (such as USDC). We wrote recently about addressing bugs and vulnerabilities in blockchain ecosystems.7 It is unclear whether users understand how to evaluate different blockchain developer communities for development best practices (including testing, detecting bugs, and deploying fixes).

Fees. Decentralized blockchain networks charge transaction fees, which float according to market prices for blockchain space. The fee on Ethereum for a USDT ERC-20 transfer is currently $9.75 and for a USDC ERC-20 transfer is $10.25.8 Note that fees are paid in the native blockchain medium (in this case, ETH) though when using a service they might quote fees in other tokens or even USD (as we did here). Fees will rise if overall transaction volume on Ethereum grows—whether related to stablecoins or via other tokens or contracts—without a corresponding increase in transaction capacity.9 This might even unexpectedly render some stablecoin token accounts as unusable “dust”–of a value where it is no longer economically viable to transfer them, given the fees on the blockchain to do so. Fees also can spike temporarily, which might make it hard for users to predict when they will be able to afford to transfer their tokens.10

Stablecoin smart contracts

On Ethereum and some other blockchains, each stablecoin has its own set of smart contracts. These contracts control the issuance, redemption, transfer, and blacklisting (for example, due to sanctions compliance) of the stablecoin tokens issued on this blockchain. These smart contracts are critical to tracking stablecoin ownership. There have been many cases of funds being frozen or hacked in smart contracts;11 as such there needs to be processes in place for auditing this software and understanding the upgrade and deployment process (note that this is a completely different task from auditing the existence or composition of the backing reserves). There should be a recovery process plan in place for if the contract is hacked.

Minting and redemption

Stablecoin providers need to have a process for minting and redeeming stablecoins, usually connected to functionality in the smart contract, but requiring sensitive private keys. There are several risks and questions to address around the minting and redemption procedures, and the threat model behind them:

With all of these components, has the developer team run practice scenarios responding to bugs in the blockchain, smart contract, or minting and redemption processes? Might trading on exchanges need to be halted if compromise occurs, and is there a communication plan in place? Is there an estimate of the impact to the users of other smart contracts and financial instruments which use the stablecoin?

In stablecoins, blockchains are just accounting

Stablecoins rely on some backing and a stablecoin provider to redeem stablecoins. Usually, in the redemption process, the provider gives other funds (for example, an ACH, wire, or Bitcoin transfer) to the person who can show they control the stablecoin token on the blockchain after they transfer it back to the provider. But if the blockchain and the stablecoin provider disagree about token ownership, who wins? What responsibility does the stablecoin backing-holder (which might even be different from the provider) actually have to honor the state of the blockchain for redemptions?

Users need to understand how the stablecoin provider will mediate conflicting state—if there is disagreement (for example, due to an attack), who gets restitution, who doesn’t, and how is this determined?

Risk to the underlying blockchain from large stablecoins

Interestingly, the blockchain itself might be at risk if a stablecoin which runs on it becomes too big, especially compared to the monetary base of the blockchain’s native token. Stablecoin providers can have influence on the blockchain’s governance by only honoring the version of the stablecoin on one side of a blockchain fork, for example, even if it is not the side that most blockchain users prefer.12 Or, a stablecoin issuer could choose to honor tokens on either side in different ways. For example, they could honor the first token to be redeemed on either side and cancel the corresponding token on the other side. They could reject all transfers and redemptions during a time of uncertainty until a clear “victor” emerges. They could split the backing between the two forks.

Additionally, it is unclear how a very large stablecoin might affect the blockchain’s underlying security incentives, especially if miners (or stakers) are processing large stablecoin transactions but are rewarded (or slashed) in amounts denominated in the smaller, less valuable blockchain token. This might cause more incentive for miners or validators to conduct double spend attacks.

There is also a regulatory risk. If stablecoins grow large and are deemed systemically important, an argument could be made that the blockchains they run upon are also systemically important. This might increase attempts to regulate decentralized blockchain networks.


This might come off as critical of decentralized blockchains. To be clear, I think this area is enormously exciting and has a lot of potential, and I don’t really see how stablecoins that run on permissioned blockchains or private networks have anything new to offer. However, it’s clear that many of those deciding if and how to regulate centralized stablecoins do not necessarily have access to unbiased information on how the various technologies work, nor the threat models behind them.

Thanks to members of the Digital Currency Initiative and others for useful conversation and feedback, and in particular Tadge Dryja for raising the point about stablecoins’ potential impact on the underlying blockchain. All errors are my own.

  1. Messari lists USDT at 71B, but Coinmarketcap says $69 as of September 24, 2021. 

  2. Centre Consortium. Announcing USDC on Ten New Platforms. June 29, 2021. Linked explorers accessed as of September 23, 2021. 

  3. Coinmarketcap. What is USD Coin (USDC)? Accessed September 19,2021. 

  4. Centre Consortium. Accessed September 24, 2021. 

  5. Behrens, Alex. USDC on TRON: High-Speed, On-Chain Value Transfers. September 14, 2021. 

  6. Ossinger, Joanna. Solana Promises ‘Detailed Post-Mortem’ After 17-Hour Outage. Bloomberg, September 15, 2021. 

  7. Böhme, Rainer, Lisa Eckey, Tyler Moore, Neha Narula, Tim Ruffing, and Aviv Zohar. Responsible vulnerability disclosure in cryptocurrencies. Communications of the ACM 63, no. 10 (2020): 62-71. 

  8. Gasnow. Accessed September 19, 2021. 

  9. Layer 2 solutions (Lightning, rollups, etc) might help increase transaction capacity, but require new assumptions (sometimes economic) 

  10. Note that blockchain fees do not apply if the token is merely transferred across accounts inside the same intermediary, like an exchange. This is because the exchange retains custody of the token on the blockchain and simply changes ownership on its own internal accounts. This is much like a bank transfer between accounts within the same bank. However, while they appear similar in the most optimistic scenario, stablecoin deposits at exchanges may not be individually insured. This is very different from underlying currency deposits at a bank, which typically are guaranteed by an agency of the issuing sovereign itself (e.g. FDIC deposit insurance in the U.S.). 

  11. O’Leary, Rachel-Rose. Brain Freeze? Parity Bug Continues With No Easy Solution in Sight. Coindesk, November 24, 2017. 

  12. Lee, Leland and Haseeb Qureshi. Ethereum is now unforkable, thanks to DeFi. October 31, 2019.